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五种基本句式解析

2017-04-17 17:52:44 编辑:无 浏览:(1207次)

不论看上去有多纷繁庞杂的英语句子,删繁就简之后得到的基本框架皆是由五种基本句式组合而成。故了解并熟知英语简单句的五种基本句式是理解所有单复句(单句,并列句,复合句,复杂句)的最重要的前提保证;它同时也是学好各大英语语法的必备条件。


                五种基本句式解析

1 SVi 主谓结构 (Vi通常不接宾语;也无被动语态)。此句式后往往会用一些时间,地点,频率,程度,方式等状语修饰,以使句意更加明晰。

1) 主语常用以下词性或词形充当: n. / pron. / doing / to do / clause

用作谓语的常见不及物动词(或短语)有:appear, sit, apologize, arrive, come, go, die, disappear, exist; fall, rise ; occur, happen, take place, come about, break out; come out, come up, go out等等。Eg:

(1) Mr. Black disappeared suddenly.    

(2) The old nation has existed about one thousand years.

(3) Great Changes have taken place in our country since the 1990s

(4) Some good ideas came up at the meeting yesterday.

Exx(Tip先抽出句子主干翻译,再在适当位置添译附加成分)

1) 我们班的每一位同学现在学习都很努力。_____________________________________

2) 我们学校的大部分班主任通常5:20就起床了。 _______________________________________

3) 那场大火大概是前天下午三点爆发的。 _____________________________________

2.  SVt (短语)O 主谓宾结构

有时句子中含有与宾语有关的状语。作宾语的成分常是:名词、代词、动词不定式、动名词或从句。如:

1) We like sports.我们喜爱运动。

2) He knows what to do next.他知道下一步做什么。

3) He began learning English ten years ago.十年前他开始学英语。

4) I have decided to play the flute well.我已经决定把长笛吹好。

5) 我昨天与同班同学一起看了一部电影。_______________________________.

6) You place me in a difficult situation. ___________________________

7) They finally managed to get along with us. ____________________________

8They have _______ _______ ______ of the children.这些孩子他们照看得很好。

17I don’t like being treated like this.________________________________(注: 少数不及物动词后面可以跟一个相同意义的名词作宾语,这样的宾语就叫做同源宾语。常见的能带同源宾语的动词有:lead, live, die, sleep, dream, breathe, smile, laugh, fight, run, sing等。例如:

1). Under the leadership of the Party, the peasants lead a happy life.

2). I dreamed a terrible dream last night.

3). Our soldiers fought a wonderful fight against the floods last August.

4). He died a glorious death.

3 :  SlinkVP主系表结构

1) He is an IT engineer.他是一位信息工程师。

2) The cloth feels smooth.这块布料手感细滑。

3) The river near my house looks more beautiful in the early morning. 我家附近的那条河在清晨看上去格外美丽。

** 这种句型中的系动词一般可分为下列两类:
A. 表示状态的连系动词。这些词有:be, look, seem, appear, smell, feel, taste,  

sound,    

keep, remain, 等等。如:
4) We should ________ __________ any time. (保持谦虚)
5) 这种食物尝起来很糟糕。___________________________________.

B. 表示转变或结果的系动词。这些词有:become, get, grow, turn, go, come, prove,等等。如:

6)  Spring comes. It is getting warmer and warmer.

7)  Don't have the food. _______________________________. (它已经变质了)
8)  The fact __________ ___________.      这个事实证明是正确的。

4. SVO1O2 主谓双宾结构,O1=间接宾语;O2=直接宾语

1) The old man gave the little boy some coins  老人给了那个小男孩几个硬币。

2) Mr. Hardey teaches US European Literature  哈代先生教我们欧洲文学。

3) His aunt bought him a book and several toys  他婶婶给他买了一本书和几个玩具。

4) His praise gave US great encouragement  他的表扬给了我们很大的鼓舞。

5) The programmer is showing us how to use the computer.程序员正在教我们如何使用电脑。

(这种句型中作间接宾语的常常指,直接宾语常常指”.) 如:
6Yesterday her father __________ ______ _____ _______ as a birthday present.   昨天她父亲给她买了一辆自行车作为生日礼物。
7) The old man is telling the children stories in the Long March.

___________________________________________________
这种句型还可转换为其他两种句型

A. 动词 直接宾语 for sb.

B. 动词 直接宾语 to sb.

8) Please show me your picture. = Please ______ _____ __________ _____ ____

9) I'll offer you a good chance as long as you don t lose heart.

= I'll offer ____ ______ ________ ____ _____ as long as you don't lose heart.

5: SVOC 主谓宾补结构

1) We think Creek too difficult.我们认为希腊语太难了。

2) We made him captain.我们选他作队长。

3) They don't want to let us go.他们不想让我们走。

4) When the policemen came inthey found the old man dead.警察进来时发现老人死了。

5) He 1ikes to watch the boys playing football.   他喜欢看那些男孩们踢足球。

** 这种句型中的宾语+ 补语可统称为复合宾语”, 作补语的常常是名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、动词不定式等。如:
6Keep ________________________________, please. 请让孩子们安静下来。
7)他把墙漆成白色。    

_____________________________________________________.
8)我们发现他是一个诚实的人。______________________________________________.
注意:动词have, make, let, see, hear, notice, feel, observe, watch等后面所接的动词不定式作宾补时,不带to。但如果变为被动语态,则加上to如:

9The boss made him do the work all day. (变为被动语态)


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